Imam al-Sadiq (as) shows his companion the prayers with all its limits – meaning including the recommended actions and not just the obligatories – through an authentic hadith narrated to us from the three big Sheikhs or our religion! al-Kulayni, al-Sadooq, and al-Tusi, may Allah (swt) bless their souls and elevate their ranks.
Hammaad bin Eassa said: Abu `Abdillah (as) said to me one day: Do you know how to pray, O Hammad?
He said: I said: O my master! I comply with the Book of Hariz about prayer
He said: So he (as) said: Worry not! Stand and pray.
He said: So I stood in front of him, facing the Qiblah. Then I commenced the prayer and I bowed and I prostrated.
So he (as) said: O Hammad! You do not know how to pray. How repulsive is it for a man to have had sixty years or seventy years pass him by, and he has not established a single prayer with all its limits?!
Hammad said: So embarrassment befell me and I said: May I be sacrificed for you! Please teach me the prayer.
So Abu `Abdillah (as) stood facing the Qiblah, erect. Then he placed both his hands together on his thighs, his fingers joined together and he drew his feet near until they were three cubits apart. And he turned, with all the toes of his feet together, neither of his feet turned away from the Qiblah, with submissiveness and complete tranquility, and said: Allah is Greater (Allahu Akbar)! Then he recited Surat al Hamd and Qul Huwa Allahu Ahad (Surat al Ikhlas) with the intonation (tarteel). Then he paused a little for a measure of one breath while he was standing. Then he said: Allah is Greater (Allahu Akbar), while he was standing. Then he bowed and spread his palms over the knees and pushed his knees backwards until his back was straight; were a drop of water or fat to be poured on him, it would not slide down due to the straightening of his back and the pushing back of his knees, and he stretched his neck and looked down. Then he glorified thrice (SubhaanAllah) with tarteel and said: Allah listens to the one who praises Him (Sami`allaahu liman Hamidah). Then he recited the takbeer while he was standing and raised his hands opposite his face. And he prostrated and placed his hands on the ground prior to his knees and said: Purified (glorified) is my Lord, the Most High, and I praise Him (Subhaana rabbiya ‘l-a`laa wa bihamdih), thrice, and he did not place (i.e. rest) anything (any part) of his body against anything from it. And he prostrated upon eight major (parts): the forehead and the palms and the kneecaps and the tips of the big toes of the feet and the nose; then these are seven, plenty (viz. seven are required). And the positioning of the nose over the earth is recommended. And it is (out of) compulsion (i.e., the nose is forced to rub the ground when the forehead is on the ground). Then he raised his head from prostration and when he was seated, he said: Allahu Akbar! Then he sat on his left side and he placed the outside of his right foot over the inside of his left foot, and said: I seek forgiveness of Allah, my Lord and I turn towards (repent unto) Him (Astaghfirullaaha Rabbee wa atoobu ilayh). Then he recited the takbeer while he was seated and he prostrated a second time and said what he had said in the first and he did not resort to anything from his body against another from it either in the ruku` or the sujud, and he was winged (i.e., the placement of his hands appeared as if there were wings on either side, i.e. spread out away from his body) and he did not place his arms on the ground. Then he prayed the second rak`ah similarly, then said: O Hammad! Pray this way. And do not turn, nor play with your hands or your fingers and do not spit from your right nor your left nor in front of you.
– al-Sadooq, from his father, from Ali bin Ibrahim, from his father, from Hammaad bin Eassa
– al-Kulayni, from Ali bin Ibrahim, from his father, from Hammaad bin Eassa
– al-Tusi, from Muhammad bin Ya`qoob, from Ali bin Ibrahim, from his father, from Hammaad bin Eassa
– Man La Yahdhuruhu al-Faqih, al-Sadooq, Volume 1, Page 300, Hadith 915 (link)
– al-Kafi, al-Kulayni, Volume 3, Page 311, Hadith #8 (link)
– Tahdheeb al-Ahkaam, al-Tusi, Volume 2, Page 81, Hadith #69 (link)
– Bihaar al-Anwaar, al-Majlisi, Volume 81, Page 185, Chapter 15, Hadith #1 (link)
– Wasaa’il al-Shi’a, al-Hurr, Volume 5, Page 459-461, Hadith #1 (link) (See First Image below)
– al-Majlisi says chain in al-Kafi is Hasan (Good) and in Man La Yahdhuruhu al-Faqih is Sahih (Authentic) [Mir’at al-Uqool, Volume 15, Page 101, Hadith #8 (See Second Image below)]
– al-Majlisi says chain in Tahdheeb al-Ahkaam is Hasan (Good) and again in Man La Yahdhuruhu al-Faqih is Sahih (Authentic) [Malaadh al-Akhyaar, Volume 3, Page 539, Hadith #69 (See Third Image below)]
– Haadi al-Najafi says the chain in al-Kafi is Sahih (Authentic) [Mawsu’at Ahadeeth Ahlulbayt, Volume 9, Pages 22-23, Hadith #16 (See Fourth Image below)]
– Asif al-Mohsini says the hadith (related in Bihar al-Anwaar) is reliable [Mashra`at Bihaar al-Anwaar, Volume 2, Page 418 (See Fifth Image below)]