Some question the infallibility and decision making of the second Imam (as). This ignorance and doubt shows their likeness with Umar bin Khattab.
‘Abu Ja’far (as) said, and with us was my son: ‘O Sudeyr! Mention to us your matter (belief) which you are upon. So if there is drowning in it, I will restrain you, and if you were deficient, I will Guide you’. He said, ‘I went on to speak, so Abu Ja’far (as) said: ‘Hold on, until I suffice you with the Knowledge which the Messenger of Allah (sawa) placed in the presence of Ali (as). The one who recognised it would be a Believer, and one who fights against it would be a disbeliever. Then after him was Al-Hassan (as)’.
I said, ‘How can there be a status due to that, and what had been from him whatever it was, he handed it over to Muawiya?’ So he said: ‘Silence! He knew full well with what he was doing, and had he not done that, it would have been a grievous matter (situation)’
Sanad: My father said, ‘Sa’ad bin Abdullah, from Ahmad bin Abu Abdullah, from Ibn Fazaal, from Sa’alba, from Umar bin Abu Nasr, from Sudeyr who said the above hadith
Source: `ilal al-Shari’i`, Sh. Al-Sadooq, Chapter 159, Hadith #1 (See Image below second hadith)
‘I said to Al-Hassan (as) Bin Ali Bin Abu Talib (as), ‘O son of the Messenger of Allah (sawa)! Why did you discuss with Muawiya and reconciled with him, and you had know that the right (of the Caliphate) is for you, beside him, and that Muawiya was erroneous and a rebel?’ So he said: ‘O Abu Saeed! Was my father not a Proof of Allah, Elevated is His Mention, over His Creatures, and an Imam over them?’ I said, ‘Yes’. He said: ‘Am I not the one for whom the Messenger of Allah (sawa) said to me and to my brother: ‘Al-Hassan (as) and Al-Hussain (as) are two Imams (as), be they arisen or seated?’ I said, ‘Yes’. He said: ‘So then, I am an Imam, whether I arise (by the sword) and I am an Imam, if I were to be seated (and not raise the sword).
O Abu Saeed! The reason for my reconciliation with Muawiya was the (same) reason for the reconciliation of the Messenger of Allah (sawa) with the Clan of Zamra and the Clan of Ashja’a, and the people of Makkah, when he turned back from Al-Hudaybiyya. Those (people) were disbelievers in the Revelation, and Muawiya and his companions are disbelievers in the explanation (of it).
O Abu Saeed! Since I am an Imam from Allah, Elevated is His Mention, then there is no foolishness involved whether I approach it with a truce or war, and it was with the aspect of wisdom in what I approached it with, (which appeared to be) confusing (to you). Have you not see Al-Khizr (as) when he made a hole in the ship, and killed the boy, and straightened the wall, Musa (as) was angered, for the aspect of wisdom appeared confusing to him until he (Al-Khizr (as)) informed him, so he (Musa (as)) was pleased with it.
This is how I am. They are angry with me due to their ignorance of the aspect of the wisdom in it, and had I not approached it the way I did, not one of our Shias would have been left on the face of the earth, except that he would have been killed.
Sanad: Ali bin Ahmad bin Muhammad narrated to us, from Muhammad bin Musa Bin Dawood Al Daqaq, from Al Hassan bin Ahmad Bin Al Lays, from Muhammad bin Hameed, from Yahya bin Abu Bakeyr, from Abu Al A’ala Al Khafaf, from Abu Ssaeed Aqeysa who said,
Source: `ilal al-Shari’i`, Sh. Al-Sadooq, Chapter 159, Hadith #2 (See Image below)
There were many who questioned Imam Hassan (as), just as many questioned Imam Ali (as) (the khawarij) and more notably many questioned the Prophet (sawa) at Hudaybiyyah.
Narrated Abu Wail:
We were in Siffin and Sahl bin Hunaif got up and said, “O people! Blame yourselves! We were with the Prophet (ﷺ) on the day of Hudaibiya, and if we had been called to fight, we would have fought. But `Umar bin Al Khatab came and said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ)! Aren’t we in the right and our opponents in the wrongs’ Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, ‘Yes.’ `Umar said, ‘Aren’t our killed persons in Paradise and their’s in Hell?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ `Umar said, ‘Then why should we accept hard terms in matters concerning our religion? Shall we return before Allah judges between us and them?’ Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, ‘O Ibn Al- Khattab! I am the Messenger of Allah and Allah will never degrade me. Then `Umar went to Abu Bakr and told him the same as he had told the Prophet. On that Abu Bakr said (to `Umar). ‘He is the Messenger of Allah and Allah will never degrade him.’ Then Surat-al-Fath (i.e. Victory) was revealed and Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) recited it to the end in front of `Umar. On that `Umar asked, ‘O Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ)! Was it (i.e. the Hudaibiya Treaty) a victory?’ Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Yes”.
حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ آدَمَ، حَدَّثَنَا يَزِيدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، حَدَّثَنَا حَبِيبُ بْنُ أَبِي ثَابِتٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو وَائِلٍ، قَالَ كُنَّا بِصِفِّينَ فَقَامَ سَهْلُ بْنُ حُنَيْفٍ فَقَالَ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّهِمُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ فَإِنَّا كُنَّا مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَوْمَ الْحُدَيْبِيَةِ، وَلَوْ نَرَى قِتَالاً لَقَاتَلْنَا، فَجَاءَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، أَلَسْنَا عَلَى الْحَقِّ وَهُمْ عَلَى الْبَاطِلِ فَقَالَ ” بَلَى ”. فَقَالَ أَلَيْسَ قَتْلاَنَا فِي الْجَنَّةِ وَقَتْلاَهُمْ فِي النَّارِ قَالَ ” بَلَى ”. قَالَ فَعَلَى مَا نُعْطِي الدَّنِيَّةَ فِي دِينِنَا أَنَرْجِعُ وَلَمَّا يَحْكُمِ اللَّهُ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَهُمْ فَقَالَ ” ابْنَ الْخَطَّابِ، إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ، وَلَنْ يُضَيِّعَنِي اللَّهُ أَبَدًا ”. فَانْطَلَقَ عُمَرُ إِلَى أَبِي بَكْرٍ فَقَالَ لَهُ مِثْلَ مَا قَالَ لِلنَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ إِنَّهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ، وَلَنْ يُضَيِّعَهُ اللَّهُ أَبَدًا. فَنَزَلَتْ سُورَةُ الْفَتْحِ، فَقَرَأَهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَى عُمَرَ إِلَى آخِرِهَا. فَقَالَ عُمَرُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، أَوَفَتْحٌ هُوَ قَالَ ” نَعَمْ ”.
Reference: Sahih al-Bukhari 3182
In-book reference: Book 58, Hadith 24
USC-MSA web (English) reference: Vol. 4, Book 53, Hadith 406
(deprecated numbering scheme)
In other variations in Bukhari, it seems Umar did not accept the Prophet’s words and needed confirmation from Abu Bakr!
…The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “O the son of Al-Khattab! No doubt, I am Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) and Allah will never neglect me.” So `Umar left the place angrily and he was so impatient that he went to Abu Bakr and said, “O Abu Bakr! Aren’t we on the right (path) and they (pagans) on the wrong?” Abu Bakr said, “O the son of Al-Khattab! He is Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ), and Allah will never neglect him.” Then Sura Al-Fath (The Victory) was revealed.” (Link)
And in another hadith in Bukhari, he outright asks the Prophet (sawa) if he is a Prophet! and again needs Abu Bakr’s confirmation:
…`Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “I went to the Prophet (ﷺ) and said, ‘Aren’t you truly the Messenger of Allah?’ The Prophet (ﷺ) said, ‘Yes, indeed.’ I said, ‘Isn’t our Cause just and the cause of the enemy unjust?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ I said, ‘Then why should we be humble in our religion?’ He said, ‘I am Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) and I do not disobey Him, and He will make me victorious.’ I said, ‘Didn’t you tell us that we would go to the Ka`ba and perform Tawaf around it?’ He said, ‘Yes, but did I tell you that we would visit the Ka`ba this year?’ I said, ‘No.’ He said, ‘So you will visit it and perform Tawaf around it?’ ” `Umar further said, “I went to Abu Bakr and said, ‘O Abu Bakr! Isn’t he truly Allah’s Prophet?’… (Link)
This is not the only time Umar doubts the Prophet (sawa) and annoys him with questions of questioning:
Narrated Malik bin Anas:
from Zaid bin Aslam, from his father who said: “I heard ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab [may Allah be pleased with him] saying: ‘We were with the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) during one of his journeys when I said something to him but he was silent. Then I said something again but he was silent. I quickened my pace of mount to go to the other wise. I said: “May your mother lose you O Ibn Al-Khattab! You pestered the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) three times, each time he did not reply to you! You deserve that something be revealed about you in the Qur’an.'” He (‘Umar) said: “It was not long before I heard a voice calling me.’ So I came to the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) and he said: “O Ibn Al-Khattab! A Surah was revealed to me last night which is dearer to me than what the sun rises upon: Verily, We have given you a manifest victory (48:1).'”
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ خَالِدِ بْنِ عَثْمَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا مَالِكُ بْنُ أَنَسٍ، عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ أَسْلَمَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ، رضى الله عنه يَقُولُ كُنَّا مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي بَعْضِ أَسْفَارِهِ فَكَلَّمْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَسَكَتَ ثُمَّ كَلَّمْتُهُ فَسَكَتَ ثُمَّ كَلَّمْتُهُ فَسَكَتَ فَحَرَّكْتُ رَاحِلَتِي فَتَنَحَّيْتُ وَقُلْتُ ثَكِلَتْكَ أُمُّكَ يَا ابْنَ الْخَطَّابِ نَزَرْتَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ثَلاَثَ مَرَّاتٍ كُلُّ ذَلِكَ لاَ يُكَلِّمُكَ مَا أَخْلَقَكَ أَنْ يَنْزِلَ فِيكَ قُرْآنٌ قَالَ فَمَا نَشِبْتُ أَنْ سَمِعْتُ صَارِخًا يَصْرُخُ بِي قَالَ فَجِئْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ” يَا ابْنَ الْخَطَّابِ لَقَدْ أُنْزِلَ عَلَىَّ هَذِهِ اللَّيْلَةَ سُورَةٌ مَا أُحِبُّ أَنَّ لِي بِهَا مَا طَلَعَتْ عَلَيْهِ الشَّمْسُ : (إنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحًا مُبِينًا ) ” . قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ غَرِيبٌ وَرَوَاهُ بَعْضُهُمْ عَنْ مَالِكٍ مُرْسَلاً .
Grade: Sahih (Darussalam)
English reference: Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Vol. 5, Book 44, Hadith 3262
Arabic reference: Book 47, Hadith 3572
Imam Hassan (as) was certainly oppressed, even by the so called Shia. There is an interesting hadith in the Sunni book Tirmidhi, which is part of the “authentic six” (sahih al-sittah), that the rule of Imam Hassan (as) would be greater than a thousand months rule of Bani Ummayyah:
Al-Qasim bin Al-Fadl Al-Huddani narrated from Yusuf bin Sa’d, who said:
“A man stood up in front of Al-Hasan bin Ali, after he pledged to Mu’awiyah, so he said: ‘You have made fools of the believers.’ – or: ‘O you who has made fools of the believers’ – So he said: ‘Do not scold me so, may Allah have mercy upon you, for indeed the Prophet had a dream in which he saw Banu Umayyah upon his Minbar. That distressed him, so (the following) was revealed: Verily We have granted you Al-Kauthar (O Muhammad) meaning a river in Paradise, and (the following) was revealed: ‘Verily We have sent it down on the Night of Al-Qadr. And what will make you know what the Night of Al-Qadr is? The Night of Al-Qadr is better than a thousand months, in which Banu Umayyah rules after you O Muhammad.” Al-Qasim said: “So we counted them, and found that they were one-thousand months, not a day more nor less.”
حَدَّثَنَا مَحْمُودُ بْنُ غَيْلاَنَ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو دَاوُدَ الطَّيَالِسِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا الْقَاسِمُ بْنُ الْفَضْلِ الْحُدَّانِيُّ، عَنْ يُوسُفَ بْنِ سَعْدٍ، قَالَ قَامَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ بَعْدَ مَا بَايَعَ مُعَاوِيَةَ فَقَالَ سَوَّدْتَ وُجُوهَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ . أَوْ يَا مُسَوِّدَ وُجُوهِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ . فَقَالَ لاَ تُؤَنِّبْنِي رَحِمَكَ اللَّهُ فَإِنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أُرِيَ بَنِي أُمَيَّةَ عَلَى مِنْبَرِهِ فَسَاءَهُ ذَلِكَ فَنَزَلَتْ : ( إنَّا أَعْطَيْنَاكَ الْكَوْثَرَ ) يَا مُحَمَّدُ يَعْنِي نَهْرًا فِي الْجَنَّةِ وَنَزَلَتْ : ( إنَّا أَنْزَلْنَاهُ فِي لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِ * وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ * لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ خَيْرٌ مِنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ ) يَمْلِكُهَا بَعْدَكَ بَنُو أُمَيَّةَ يَا مُحَمَّدُ . قَالَ الْقَاسِمُ فَعَدَدْنَاهَا فَإِذَا هِيَ أَلْفُ شَهْرٍ لاَ يَزِيدُ يَوْمٌ وَلاَ يَنْقُصُ . قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ غَرِيبٌ لاَ نَعْرِفُهُ إِلاَّ مِنْ هَذَا الْوَجْهِ مِنْ حَدِيثِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ الْفَضْلِ . وَقَدْ قِيلَ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ الْفَضْلِ عَنْ يُوسُفَ بْنِ مَازِنٍ . وَالْقَاسِمُ بْنُ الْفَضْلِ الْحُدَّانِيُّ هُوَ ثِقَةٌ وَثَّقَهُ يَحْيَى بْنُ سَعِيدٍ وَعَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ مَهْدِيٍّ وَيُوسُفُ بْنُ سَعْدٍ رَجُلٌ مَجْهُولٌ وَلاَ نَعْرِفُ هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ عَلَى هَذَا اللَّفْظِ إِلاَّ مِنْ هَذَا الْوَجْهِ .
English reference: Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Vol. 5, Book 44, Hadith 3350
Arabic reference: Book 47, Hadith 3673
If you search the history of Bani Ummayyah, their reign lasted around 89 years, which is just over 1000 months. Of course, the wahhabi mob of “darassalam” graded it weak – no surprise considering it is a direct attack on Bani Ummayyah.
He was oppressed ’till his burial and beyond, and was deprived of being burried next to his grandfather. Woe upon those who denied the rights of the progeny of the Messenger of Allah! (sawa):
Abu Abdullah (as) has said: ‘Al-Hussain bin Ali (as) intended to bury Al-Hassan bin Ali (as) alongside the Messenger of Allah (sawa), and a group (in opposition) gathered. So a man said, ‘I heard Al-Hassan Bin Ali (as) saying: ‘Say to Al-Hussain (as) not to spill blood with regards to me’. Had it not been for that, we would not have prevented Al-Hussain (as) until he (Al-Hassan) would have been buried alongside the Messenger of Allah (sawa)’.
Abu Abdullah (as) said: ‘The first woman to ride the mule after the Messenger of Allah (sawa) was A’isha. She came to the Masjid and prevented the burial of Al-Hassan Bin Ali (as) alongside the Messenger of Allah (sawa)’.
Sanad: Muhammad bin Al Hassan narrated to us, from Al Husayn Bin Al Hassan Ibn Aban, from Al Husayn bin Saeed, from Al Nazar bin Suweyd, from Hisham bin Saalim, from Suleyman bin Khalid,
Source: `ilal al-Shari’i`, Sh. Al-Sadooq, Chapter 161, Hadith #1 (See Image below)
Grading: Reliable hadith, as can be seen on Slave of Ahlubait’s blog.