There are those amongst the Shias who put a question mark upon the martyrdom of Sayeda Fatima (as) and particularly the details on what happened during the incident of the door. Some claim there is no AUTHENTIC proofs on the martyrdom of Sayeda Fatima (as). This is far from the truth, as we shall examine.
The first proof that Sayeda Fatima (as) died a martyr is in our most authentic of books, al-Kafi:
محمد بن يحيى، عن العمركي بن علي، عن علي بن جعفر أخيه، أبي الحسن عليه السلام قال: إن فاطمة عليها السلام صديقة شهيدة وإن بنات الأنبياء لا يطمثن
“Abu al-Hassan (as) has said, ‘Fatimah is truthful and a martyr. The daughters of the prophets do not experience menses.’”
Sanad: Muhammad in Yahya has narrated from al-‘Amrakiy ibn Ali from Ali ibn Ja‘far from his brother from abu al-Hassan, recipient of divine supreme covenant, who has said the above hadith
Source: al-Kafi, Volume 1, Chapter 171, Hadith #2 (See First Image below)
Grading: Allaamah al-Majlisi says it is Sahih (صحيح) [Mir’at al-Uqool, Volume 5, Page 315 (See Second Image below)]
This firstly proves Sayeda Fatima (as) died a martyr.
Secondly, we have the following hadith in al-Kafi:
“Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘My father narrated to me from my grandfather that `Amir al-Mu’minin has said, ‘Name your children before they are born: and if you do not know they are male or female, then name them with such names that are good for both male and female. In case a child is miscarried, when that child will meet you on the Day of Judgment, whom you had not given a name, it will say to his father, ‘I wish you had named me.’ The Messenger of Allah had named Muhsin before his birth.’”
Sanad: A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Qasim ibn Yahya from his grandfather al-Hassan ibn Rashid from abu Basir who has said the above hadith
Source: al-Kafi, Volume 6, Chapter 10, Hadith #2 (See First Image below)
Grading: al-Mohsini says the hadith is reliable [Mu’jim al-ahaadeeth al-Mu`tabarra, Volume 2, Page 209-210, Hadith #1225 (See Second Image below)
This secondly proves that Muhsin had passed away before he was born.
Thirdly is the hadith found in Bihar al-Anwar taken from Dalaa’il al-A’imma (which al-Majlisi says is a reliable book (See Second Image below)):
كتاب دلائل الإمامة للطبري: عن محمد بن هارون بن موسى التلعكبري عن أبيه، عن محمد بن همام، عن أحمد البرقي، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن عبد الرحمن بن أبي نجران، عن ابن سنان، عن ابن مسكان، عن أبي بصير، عن أبي عبد الله (عليه السلام) قال: قبضت فاطمة (عليها السلام) في جمادى الآخرة يوم الثلاثاء لثلاث خلون منه سنة إحدى عشر من الهجرة: وكان سبب وفاتها أن قنفذا مولى عمر لكزها بنعل السيف بأمره، فأسقطت محسنا، ومرضت من ذلك مرضا شديدا، ولم تدع أحدا ممن آذاها يدخل عليها.
وكان الرجلان من أصحاب النبي (صلى الله عليه وآله) سألا أمير المؤمنين (صلوات الله عليه) أن يشفع لهما إليها، فسألها أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام)، فلما دخلا عليها قالا لها: كيف أنت يا بنت رسول الله؟ قالت: بخير بحمد الله، ثم قالت لهما: ما سمعتما النبي يقول: فاطمة بضعة مني فمن آذاها فقد آذاني، ومن آذاني فقد آذى الله؟
قالا: بلى، قالت: فوالله لقد آذيتماني، قال: فخرجا من عندها (عليها السلام) وهي ساخطة عليهما.
Aba Abdillah (as) said: Fatima (as) died on the 3rd of Jamadi al Thani in 11AH. The reason for her desmise was that Qunfudh, the slave of Umar, struck her with the handle of his sword – as per his (Umars) order. So (as a cause) Muhsin was miscarried, and Fatima (as) became extremely sick. She did not allow anyone from those who hurt her to enter upon her.
The two men (who hurt her) – who were from the companions of the Prophet (sawa) – asked Ameer al-Mu’mineen (as) to intercede on their behalf to her (as), so he (as) asked her (as). When they (the ones who hurt her) entered upon her (as), they said to her (audaciously): “How are you, oh daughter of the Prophet?” She (as) replied: “Well, Bihamdillah.” Then she (as) said: “Have you not heard the Prophet (sawa) say: “Fatima is a part of me, so whoever hurts her has indeed hurt me, and whoever hurts me has indeed hurt Allah?”
They replied: “Yes (we have heard it).” She said: “By Allah, you have both hurt me!”
He (Imam al-Sadiq (as)) said: “so they left her (as) while she was furious with them.”
Sanad: From Muhammad bin Haroon bin Musa al Tala’kabari, from his father, from Abu Ali Muhammad bin Hammam bin Suhail, from Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Khalid al Barqi, from Ahmad bin Muhammad al Asha’ri al Qumi, from Abdur Rahman bin abi Najran, from ibn Sinan, from ibn Muskan, from abi Basir who said the above hadith
Source: Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 43, Page 170-171, Hadith #11 (See First Image below)
Grading: Above (Second Image) al-Majlisi says the primary source of the hadith, the book Dalaa’il al-A’imma, is a reliable book and reached him through reliable chains. As for the hadith itself, some try and cloud the reliability of this hadith by putting a question mark upon one of the narrators in the chain. All of those who narrated are reliable (Thiqah) without a doubt except one: ibn Sinan.
On the first level, there is discussion on which ibn Sinan this is, as there is two possibilities.
a) Muhammad ibn Sinan
b) Abdullah ibn Sinan
If it is Muhammad ibn Sinan, the rijalists are split on the reliability of this narrator.
For example, Sayed al-khoei says the opinions differ but he found no solid proof in him being reliable [al-Mufeed min Mu’jim Rijal al-Hadeeth (See Image below)].
On the other hand, others like Sayed Kamal al-Haidary consider him Reliable (Link), hence the hadith would be Sahih. Similarly Sayed al-Rohani says he is reliable (محمد بن سنان … وهو وان كان ضعيفا على المشهور، الا ان الاظهر اعتبار روايته) (Link).
On this basis, there would be differing opinions on the reliability of this hadith. However, if it is Abdullah bin Sinan, there is no doubt about his reliability. Sayed al-Khoei states he is extremely reliable and dignified. [al-Mufeed min Mu’jim Rijal al-Hadeeth (See Image below)].
Now the question arises which ibn Sinan is it? If we return to the original source that al-Majlisi took this hadith from and recorded in his Bihar, we find the answer.
Sanad from Dalaa’il al-A’imma: From Abu al-Hassan Muhammad bin Haroon bin Musa al Tala’kabari, from his father, from Abu Ali Muhammad bin Hammam bin Suhail, from Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Khalid al Barqi, from Ahmad bin Muhammad al Asha’ri al Qumi, from Abdur Rahman bin abi Najran, from Abdullah ibn Sinan, from ibn Muskan, from abi Basir who said the above hadith (See Image below)
So we see here that without a shadow of a doubt this hadith is authentic based upon all the scholars of Rijal. Therefore, this hadith is Sahih.
To testify to this, Sayed al-Khoei states it is a reliable hadith in Siratul Nijaat Question 980 (See Image below). Sayed Kamal al-Haidary, Jawwad al-Tabrizi, Ja’far Murtadha al-Amuli and Shakh Abbas al-Qummi also say it is reliable.
So we see in conclusion the combination of hadiths prove without a doubt using authentic proofs that Fatima (as) and Muhsin (as) were killed as a result of Qunfudh’s attack from the orders of Umar, backed up by a plethora of other hadiths in our reliable books.