“abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, was asked about the case of a fasting woman who tastes to examine the salt of a cooking pot. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not harmful.’”
Then he (the Imam) was asked about a fasting woman who has a child and she chews the bread to feed him. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not harmful. So also is the case of a bird that belongs to her.’”
Note: As can be seen later, this is for when the food does NOT reach the throat.
Sanad: (Tahdheeb) Muhammad bin al-Hassan, from al-Hussain bin Sa’eed, from Muhammad bin Abi `Umayr, from Hamaad, from al-Halabi who narrated the above hadith; (al-Kafi) Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has said the above hadith
Source: Tahdheeb al-Ahkaam, Volume 4, Page 312, Hadith #942 (See First Image below); al-Kafi, Volume 4, Chapter 78, Hadith #1 (See Second Image below)
Grading: al-Khoei graded it Sahih/Authentic (Link); Sayed Sadiq Rohani graded it Sahih/Authentic (Link); al-Majlisi graded it Hasan/Good (See Third Image below)
al-Sheikh (al-Toosi) then narrates another hadith:
“I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of one who while fasting, tastes something but does not swallow. He (the Imam) said, ‘No (do not do it).’”
Sanad: al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from Ali ibn al-Nu’man from Sa‘eed al-’A’raj
Source: Tahdheeb al-Ahkaam, Volume 4, Page 312, Hadith #943 (See First Image below); al-Kafi, Volume 4, Chapter 78, Hadith #4 (See Second Image below)
Grading: al-Khoei graded it Sahih/Authentic (Link); al-Majlisi says it is Sahih/Authentic (See Third Image below)
al-Sheikh states that this does not contradict, but rather the hadiths imply that only if one meets the conditions of necessity of the previous reasons mentioned (Tasting in fear of ruined iftar or chewing for the fledgling) one is allowed to taste/chew food – otherwise the Imam (as) said to refrain from doing so even if it does not reach the throat. (See First Image below, blue highlight).
In opposition to Sheikh al-Toosi – Sayed al-Khoei (here), Sayed Rohani (here), and al-Majlisi (See Third Image in blue) suggest that the reconciliation of the ahhadith is that it is makrooh (disliked), but permissible, to chew or taste in these circumstances – and as long as it does not reach the throat, it does not make the fast invalid. If it reaches the throat the fast may be broken depending on conditions.
Sayed Sistani (hf) concurs and says the following:
Chewing food to feed a child or a bird and tasting food etc. which does not usually go down the throat, will not invalidate the fast, even if it happens to reach there inadvertently. However, if a person knows beforehand that it will reach the throat, his fast becomes void, and he should observe its qadha and it is also obligatory upon him to give Kaffarah.